Metformin, Rapamycin & NAD+ Contributes to Age Longevity
The Antifungal Rapamycin:
Rapamycin is an antifungal. That helps and combats organ rejection when used in high doses. And it contributes to the aging process as its low doses make the aging process slow. Rapamycin is produced by bacteria that have an origin from Easter Island and Rapa Nui.
Rapamycin contributes to the aging process in various species. By targeting mTOR i.e. the mechanistic target of Rapamycin (mTOR). It is involved in the aging process famously known as deregulated nutrient sensing. It is a pathway that manages or controls the metabolism.
mTOR activity reduction increases the lifetime of worms, flies, and mice.
The Prescribed Drug Metformin:
Many researchers suggest in their studies that Metformin contributes to health longevity. Metformin is a prescribed drug used to deal with type 2 diabetes.
This drug helps the metabolism to slow down and hence contributing to influencing the aging process.
This medication is part of a class called biguanides. This drug is found and derived from a compound. That is isolated from the French lilac (Galega officinalis).
NAD + i.e. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide are the most versatile molecule. This molecule helps is found in every living cell. NAD+ is highly essential for cellular functioning and life. NAD+ contributes to many functions of the body.
Following are the function that NAD+ performs:
- It plays the role of coenzyme. It supports the mitochondria to create ATP. ATP is a universal energy. That is used by every living cell to function. If there were no coenzymes like NAD+ there would be no fuel or energy. That would have been used by cells to function. NAD+ acts as a facilitator or catalyst.
- Many metabolism processes rely on NAD+ to facilitate. These processes include the citric acid cycle, glycolysis, and the electron transport chain.
NMN and NR are the molecules used for NAD+ biosynthesis. NMN is a larger molecule than NR. So NR is preferred as it can easily inject in the cellular pathways for the process. Lately, NMN and NR have been in the focus for NAD+ restoration. It helps in reversing the age decline.
Researchers suggest that the data on the animals is quite amazing and promising. But the human data is limited. It means there is more potential for researches. And data to be obtained for witnessing how effective NAD+ boosts is for humans and their ages.
Niacin is also an NAD+ precursor. That is recently been shown to contribute to the increase of NAD+ in skeletal muscle tissue in people.
Hence, it is a fact that NAD+ cannot enter the bloodstream directly. So, they have to be converted into NR. The only rare direct case that can increase the NAD+ level is that maybe when NAD+ is directly injected using patches bypassing the liver.
Thus, Rapamycin, Metformin, and NAD+ contribute to the age longevity of many different species including the human race.